1187 – Long-Term Survival and Gradual Recovery of B Cells in Patients with Refractory Large B Cell Lymphoma Treated with Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (Axi-Cel)

Author(s): Caron Jacobson, MD, MMSc1, Frederick L. Locke, MD2, Armin Ghobadi, MD3, David B. Miklos, MD, PhD4, Lazaros J. Lekakis, MD5*, Olalekan O. Oluwole, MBBS, MPH6, Yi Lin, MD, PhD7, Ira Braunschweig, MD8*, Brian T. Hill, MD9, John M. Timmerman, MD10, Abhinav Deol, MD11, Patrick M. Reagan, MD12, Patrick J. Stiff, MD13, Ian W. Flinn, MD, PhD14, Umar Farooq, MD15, Andre H. Goy, MD16, Peter A. McSweeney, MD17*, Javier Munoz, MD18, Tanya Siddiqi, MD19, John M. Rossi, MS20*, Adrian Bot, MD, PhD20*, Lianqing Zheng, PhD20*, Remus Vezan, MD, PhD20, Zahid Bashir, MBBS20*, Jenny J. Kim, MD, MS20*, Rong Chu, PhD20* and Sattva S. Neelapu, MD21

1Dana Faber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
2Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL
3Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO
4Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA
5Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Health System, Miami, FL
6Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN
7Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
8Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
9Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH
10UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA
11Department of Oncology, Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
12University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY
13Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL
14Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN
15University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
16John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ
17Colorado Blood Cancer Institute at Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center, Denver, CO
18Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ
19City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA
20Kite, a Gilead Company, Santa Monica, CA
21The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
*signifies non-member of ASH

Disclosures: Locke: Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Wugen: Consultancy; Calibr: Consultancy; Allogene: Consultancy; Cellular Biomedicine Group: Other: Consultancy with grant options; GammaDelta Therapeutics: Consultancy; Celgene/Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy. Ghobadi: Celegene: Consultancy; Wugen: Consultancy; Atara: Consultancy; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; EUSA: Consultancy. Miklos: Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Allogene Therapeutics Inc.: Research Funding; Juno-Celgene-Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Travel support; Miltenyi Biotec: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding; Adaptive Biotech: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Kite-Gilead: Consultancy, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel support, Research Funding. Oluwole: Pfizer: Consultancy; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy. Lin: Legend BioTech: Consultancy; Juno: Consultancy; Bluebird Bio: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Gamida Cells: Consultancy; Sorrento: Consultancy, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Research Funding; Merck: Research Funding; Vineti: Consultancy. Hill: Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; AstraZenica: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Beigene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Genentech: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Timmerman: Merck: Research Funding; Corvus: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Marker Therapeutics: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Immune Design: Honoraria; Celldex Therapeutics: Consultancy; BMS: Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Bluebird Bio: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Genmab: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Valor: Research Funding. Deol: Novartis: Consultancy; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy. Reagan: Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy; Curis: Consultancy; Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Stiff: Kite, a Gilead Company: Research Funding; Delta-Fly: Research Funding; Gamida Cell: Research Funding; Atara: Research Funding; Unum: Research Funding; Macrogenics: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding. Flinn: Celgene: Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Trillium Therapeutics: Research Funding; Curio Science: Consultancy; Merck: Research Funding; Constellation Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; BeiGene: Consultancy, Research Funding; ArQule: Research Funding; Kite Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding; Genentech, Inc.: Research Funding; Pfizer: Research Funding; Calithera Biosciences: Research Funding; Agios: Research Funding; Karyopharm Therapeutics: Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding; Forty Seven: Research Funding; Forma Therapeutics: Research Funding; Loxo: Research Funding; F. Hoffmann-La Roche: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; MorphoSys: Consultancy, Research Funding; Rhizen Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Yingli Pharmaceuticals ≠: Consultancy, Research Funding; Johnson & Johnson: Other; Roche: Consultancy, Research Funding; Vincera Pharma: Consultancy; Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Research Funding; AbbVie: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Iksuda Therapeutics: Consultancy; Great Point Partners: Consultancy; Curis: Research Funding; Nurix Therapeutics: Consultancy; Portola Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Acerta Pharma: Research Funding; Juno Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Unum Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Infinity Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; IGM Biosciences: Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding; Teva: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Triphase Research & Development Corp.: Research Funding; Verastem: Consultancy, Research Funding. Farooq: Kite, a Gilead Company: Honoraria. Goy: COTA: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Other: leadership role; Karyopharm: Research Funding; Genentech/Roche: Research Funding; Constellation: Research Funding; Bayer: Research Funding; CALBG: Research Funding; PracticeUpdate Oncology: Consultancy; RCCA/OMI: Current Employment; Acerta: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: leadership role, Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: leadership role, Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding; Hackensack UMC and University of Nebraska: Research Funding; Infinity: Research Funding; Xcenda: Consultancy; Infinity Verastem: Research Funding; Morphosys: Research Funding; AbbVie: Research Funding; MD Anderson: Research Funding; Regional Cancer Care Associates/OMI: Current Employment; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Honoraria, Other: leadership role, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: leadership role, Research Funding. McSweeney: Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Colorado Blood Cancer Institute: Current Employment; Fred Hutchinson: Patents & Royalties. Munoz: Juno/Celgene/BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Alexion: Consultancy; Beigene: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Fosunkite: Consultancy; Innovent: Consultancy; Acrotech/Aurobindo: Speakers Bureau; Kyowa: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Consultancy; Verastem: Speakers Bureau; AstraZeneca: Speakers Bureau; Genentech/Roche: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; AbbVie: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Merck: Research Funding; Portola: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; Millenium: Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bayer: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Siddiqi: Oncternal: Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Janssen: Speakers Bureau; Seattle Genetics: Speakers Bureau; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; BeiGene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Juno: Consultancy, Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding. Rossi: Gilead Sciences: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment. Bot: Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment; Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Other: Travel support . Zheng: Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment; Gilead Sciences: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Vezan: Merck: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Abbvie: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment, Honoraria, Other: Travel support. Bashir: Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment; OmniacPharmConsult Ltd: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company. Kim: Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment; Gilead Sciences: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Chu: Kite, a Gilead Company: Current Employment; Gilead Sciences: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Amgen: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Celgene: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Neelapu: N/A: Other; Takeda Pharmaceuticals: Patents & Royalties; Acerta: Research Funding; Karus Therapeutics: Research Funding; Cellectis: Research Funding; Poseida: Research Funding; Unum Therapeutics: Other, Research Funding; Calibr: Other; Kite, a Gilead Company: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Merck: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Novartis: Other: personal fees; Celgene: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Pfizer: Other: personal fees; Allogene Therapeutics: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Adicet Bio: Other; Legend Biotech: Other; Precision Biosciences: Other: personal fees, Research Funding; Incyte: Other: personal fees; Cell Medica/Kuur: Other: personal fees.

Background: Axi-cel is an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy approved for the treatment of patients (pts) with relapsed/refractory large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) with ≥ 2 prior systemic therapies. ZUMA-1 is the multicenter, single-arm, registrational Phase 1/2 study of axi-cel in pts with refractory LBCL. In a 2-year analysis of ZUMA-1 (median follow-up, 27.1 months; N=101), axi-cel demonstrated objective response, complete response (CR), and ongoing response rates of 83%, 58%, and 39%, respectively (Locke et al. Lancet Oncol. 2019). Here, we present additional survival follow up and recovery of normal, polyclonal B cells from ongoing responders in ZUMA-1.

Methods: Eligible pts with refractory large B cell lymphoma (diffuse large B cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma, transformed follicular lymphoma) underwent leukapheresis at enrollment and subsequently received low-dose conditioning chemotherapy (fludarabine and cyclophosphamide) followed by a target dose of 2 × 106 anti-CD19 CAR T cells/kg (Neelapu et al. NEJM. 2017; NCT02348216). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), and the first response assessment was 4 weeks post infusion. Response assessments were performed per protocol up to 24 months or disease progression, whichever occurred first. For pts in ongoing response beyond Month 24, response assessments continued per institutional standard-of-care (SOC). Blood levels of CAR T cells were quantified using polymerase chain reaction and B cells were characterized using flow cytometry in pts with ongoing responses and evaluable samples.

Results: A total of 111 pts were enrolled, and axi-cel was administered to 101 pts. As previously reported in the ZUMA-1 2-year analysis, among pts who received axi-cel, the median time from axi-cel infusion to both objective response and CR was 1.0 month (range, 1 – 12 months; Locke et al. Lancet Oncol 2019). When the entire enrolled population (N = 111) was included on an intent-to-treat basis, the median manufacturing time was 17 days (range, 14 – 51; n = 110 as manufacturing was not feasible for 1 pt). Additionally, among the 111 pts, the median time from enrollment/leukapheresis to objective response and CR was 1.7 months (range, 0.7 – 12.9) and 1.9 months (range, 0.7 – 13.3), respectively. Responses have been durable, and with a minimum of 3 years of follow-up (median, 39.1 months), the median overall survival (OS) was 25.8 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 47%. Importantly, no axi-cel–related secondary malignancies have been reported.

As previously reported, pts in ongoing response after 2 years had significantly greater peak CAR T cell expansion in blood 7 – 14 days after axi-cel infusion than did those with relapse (P = 0.014) or no response (P = 0.0003; Locke et al. Lancet Oncol 2019). Blood samples from 22 pts in ongoing response (per institutional SOC) at ≥ 3 years were available for analysis of CAR T cells and evaluation of B cell recovery. All evaluable pts had detectable B cells in blood at 3 years post axi-cel. Notably, 91% of pts in ongoing response at 3-year follow-up demonstrated recovery of polyclonal B cells measured by presence of both kappa and lambda light chains on non-malignant CD19+CD20+ B cells. The median kappa-lambda ratio of 1.6 and relative levels of key B cell subsets, including memory and naive B cell immunophenotypes, suggested reconstitution of B cell repertoire, consistent with published data from healthy individuals (Deneys et al. J Immunol Methods 2001; Scott et al. J Clin Pathol 2018). Additionally, 15/22 (68%) had both minimal levels of detectable CAR gene-marked cells and detectable polyclonal B cells in blood. Altogether, these findings support the hypothesis that persistence of functional CAR T cells is not necessary for durable remissions of LBCL. Overall survival and translational findings with ≥ 4 years of follow-up will be presented.

Conclusions: Axi-cel produced rapid responses and longterm disease control in pts with refractory LBCL. Most responses occurred by the first assessment, and the brief time elapsed between enrollment and response supports both the speed and success of manufacturing. Furthermore, axi-cel–treated pts with ongoing responses at ≥ 3 years showed evidence of restoration of a normal B cell compartment and clearance of functional CAR T cells, a critical component of the long-term safety of CD19-directed CAR T cell therapies.

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Oral and Poster Abstracts
© 2020 American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
Meeting: 62nd ASH® Annual Meeting & Exposition
Presenter: Caron Jacobson
Presentation Date: December 5, 2020
Abstract Number: 1187

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